Halting Cell Recycling (Autophagy) to Treat CancerTargeting and changing autophagy, otherwise known as cell recycling, has been linked to helping control or diminish certain cancers. Now, researchers have shown that completely halting this process in a very aggressive form of breast cancer may improve outcomes for patients one day.
Synthetic Llama Antibodies Rescue Doomed Proteins Inside CellsResearchers have created a new technology using synthetic llama antibodies to prevent specific proteins from being destroyed inside cells. The approach could be used to treat dozens of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, that arise from the destruction of imperfect but still perfectly functional proteins.
Researchers Discover New Particle in Blood of Septic PatientsResearchers have found that people with sepsis have never-before-seen particles in their blood. The scientists are the first to show that these particles, called elongated neutrophil-derived structures (ENDS), break off of immune cells and change their shape as they course through the body.
Cashew Shell Compound Appears to Mend Damaged NervesIn laboratory experiments, a chemical compound found in the shell of the cashew nut promotes the repair of myelin, a team from Vanderbilt University Medical Center reports in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Breakthrough Discovery to Transform Prostate Cancer TreatmentA novel formulation of the prostate cancer drug abiraterone acetate - currently marketed as Zytiga - will dramatically improve the quality of life for people suffering from prostate cancer, as pre-clinical trials show the new formulation improves the drug's effectiveness by 40 per cent.
Aspirin Linked to Reduction of Cancers of the Digestive TractThe largest and most comprehensive analysis to date of the link between aspirin and cancers of the digestive tract has shown that it is associated not only with a significant reduction in the risk of developing bowel cancer but also of several other cancers that almost invariably fatal, such as pancreatic and liver cancers.
Emotional Stress Remodels Neurons to Alter Brain FunctionWorking in a mouse model, researchers report that a single stressful event produced quick and long-lasting changes in astrocytes, the brain cells that clean up neurotransmitters after they've communicated information between nerve cells.
Researchers Identify New Marker That Predicts Likely Spread of Lung CancerNon-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. More than half of NSCLC patients die after developing metastases. There are no tests currently that would allow doctors to identify patients where more aggressive therapy could reduce mortality. Researchers at Tulane University have identified a protein on tumor-derived extracellular vesicles that indicates if a NSCLC tumor is likely to metastasize, according to a new study in Science Advances.
Protein in Eye Protects Lens From Damaging OxidationThe lens of the human eye comprises a highly concentrated protein solution, which lends the lens its great refractive power. Protective proteins prevent these proteins from clumping together throughout a lifetime. A team of scientists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now uncovered the precise structure of the alpha-A-crystallin protein and, in the process, discovered an important additional function.
Study Reveals How Insulin-Like Hormone Relaxin Reverses Cardiovascular DiseaseAs a healthy heart ages, it becomes more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases. Though researchers have discovered that relaxin, an insulin-like hormone, suppresses atrial fibrillation (AF), inflammation, and fibrosis in aged rats, the underlying mechanisms of these benefits are still unknown. Researchers discuss how relaxin interacts with the body's signaling processes to produce a fundamental mechanism that may have great therapeutic potential.
Keto Diet Works Best in Small Doses in Mouse StudyA ketogenic diet produces health benefits in the short term. As the body burns ketone bodies as an alternative source of fuel, tissue-protective gamma delta T-cells expand throughout the body, but negative effects appear after about a week, researchers found in a study of mice.
Identification of Key Protein Linked to Senescence, AgingAging is a dramatic public health issue in the face of the current demographic changes: the proportion of 60 and over in the world's population will almost double by 2050. In this context, a new discovery has just broadened scientific knowledge. Researchers shed light on the mechanisms of senescence, by identifying a key protein associated with aging.
Your Brain May Actively Forget During REM SleepRapid eye movement, or REM, sleep is when most of our dreams are made. Now, in a study of mice, a team of Japanese and U.S. researchers show that it may also be a time when the brain actively forgets.
Senescent Cell Burden is Reduced in Humans by Senolytic DrugsIn a small safety and feasibility clinical trial, Mayo Clinic researchers have demonstrated for the first time that senescent cells can be removed from the body using drugs termed “senolytics”. The result was verified not only in analysis of blood but also in changes in skin and fat tissue senescent cell abundance. The findings appear in the journal EBioMedicine.
Lithium, Trametinib and Rapamycin Combo Extends Lifespan of Fruit Flies by 48%A triple drug combination has been used to extend the lifespan of fruit flies by 48% in a new study led by UCL and the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing. The three drugs are all already in use as medical treatments: lithium as a mood stabiliser, trametinib as a cancer treatment and rapamycin as an immune system regulator.
'Tantalizing' Results For A Test Of Vitamin C For SepsisCould the leading cause of death in hospitals be curtailed with a safe and inexpensive treatment that includes vitamin C? That question has been on the minds of intensive care doctors since the spring of 2017, when a well-known physician asserted that he was saving the lives of most of his patients with sepsis by using a treatment based on intravenous vitamin C.
What About Sleep Changes with Age?Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions.
The Heterogeneity of Senescent CellsCellular senescence, discovered in 1961 by Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead, is a state in which cells no longer perform their functions, instead emitting harmful chemicals that turn other cells senescent. Senescence is primarily caused by telomere shortening and DNA damage, and senescent cells are known to contribute to multiple diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and dementia.
Popular Drug Reverses Cardiac Remodeling to Treat Heart FailureSignificant improvements in cardiac structure and function, biomarkers of cardiac wall stress and injury, and overall quality of life in the patients, underscores the potent effect of sacubitril/valsartan on cardiac remodeling in heart failure in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. These trials suggest that sacubitril/valsartan may actually reverse the cardiac remodeling that drives heart failure progression and worsening of clinical outcomes.
Healthy, Stress-Busting Fat Found Hidden in DirtThirty years after scientists coined the term 'hygiene hypothesis' to suggest that increased exposure to microorganisms could benefit health, researchers have identified an anti-inflammatory fat in a soil-dwelling bacterium that may be responsible.
Obesity, Diabetes, High Cholesterol More Prevalent Among Irregular SleepersA new study has found that not sticking to a regular bedtime and wake up schedule -- and getting different amounts of sleep each night -- can put a person at higher risk for obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, high blood sugar and other metabolic disorders. In fact, for every hour of variability in time to bed and time asleep, a person may have up to a 27% greater chance of experiencing a metabolic abnormality.
Bid to Beat Superbugs Boosted by Immune Defense DiscoveryScientists have found a molecule produced by the body – called LL-37 – specifically targets infected cells to produce a signal that summons neutrophils while causing infected cells to self-destruct, removing the threat to other healthy cells before the bacteria can grow and spread.
New Protein Discovery Protects Against High-Dose Radiation DamageIntensive radiotherapy can be toxic in 60 percent of patients with tumors located in the gastrointestinal cavity. The protein URI protected mice against high-dose ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome and enhanced intestinal regeneration and survival in 100 percent of the cases. This finding could be useful to mitigate side effects of other sources of intensive radiation, such as nuclear accidents, nuclear warfare or the exposure to cosmic radiation during space explorations.
Right Combination of Diet and Bacteria Limits Cancer ProgressionResearchers have discovered a combination of dietary factors and gut bacteria that inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer. Their findings could help exploit dietary regimens for therapeutic purposes to improve chemotherapy efficacy and reduce toxicity.
Globally, One in Five Deaths Associated with Poor DietPeople in almost every region of the world could benefit from rebalancing their diets to eat optimal amounts of various foods and nutrients, according to the Global Burden of Disease study tracking trends in consumption of 15 dietary factors from 1990 to 2017 in 195 countries.
New Medication Enhances Muscle and Bone MassA new group of compounds – Inhibitors of the Activin-receptor Signaling Pathway, or IASPs – have been shown to increase muscle and bone mass in mice, offering hope to the elderly and people suffering from weak muscles and bones due to illness.
Push-up Capacity Linked with Reduced Cardiovascular Disease in MenActive, middle-aged men able to complete more than 40 push-ups had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes – including coronary artery disease and heart failure – compared with those who were able to do less than 10 push-ups during the baseline exam.
Higher Blood Levels of Flame-Retardant Toxins in ChildrenChildren living in homes with all vinyl flooring or flame-retardant chemicals in the sofa have significantly higher concentrations of potentially harmful semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in their blood or urine than children from homes where these materials are not present.
Cell Study Sheds Light on Damage Caused by AgingSome of the damaging cell effects linked to aging could be prevented by manipulating tiny parts of cells, a study shows. Scientists have shed light on how the harm caused by senescence – a vital cell process that plays a key role in diseases of aging – could be controlled or even stopped.
Aspirin and Ibuprofen Improve Survival in Head and Neck CancerRegular use of common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen significantly improves survival for a third or more patients with head and neck cancer, improving overall five-year survival rate from 25 percent to 78 percent.
Stroke Drug May Prevent Alzheimer's DiseaseA drug currently being developed to treat stroke patients could also prevent Alzheimer's disease. Researchers report that the compound protects the brains of mice with Alzheimer's-like symptoms, reducing the buildup of toxic peptides and preventing memory loss.
Fasting Protects Against Aging-Associated DiseasesResearchers found evidence that fasting affects circadian clocks in the liver and skeletal muscle, causing them to rewire their metabolism, which can ultimately lead to improved health and protection against aging-associated diseases.
Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs Reduce Brown Adipose TissueResearchers report that statins, one of the most commonly prescribed classes of pharmaceuticals, reduce beneficial brown adipose tissue. Statins also increase risk of developing diabetes, suggesting a possible link between the two effects.
‘Nanoscavengers’ Could Protect People From Sarin Gas, Other Nerve AgentsIn the 1980s, thousands of Iranians were killed from exposure to the nerve agents sarin and tobin unleased by Iraqi forces. Similar chemicals have been used against soldiers and civilians in recent wars and terrorist attacks. Now, researchers are reporting a new therapy that may be able to provide long-acting protection against these agents.
Tissue-Engineered Spinal Disks Mimic Real ThingTwo-thirds of adults in the US will suffer from back or neck pain during their lifetimes. In this report researchers are getting closer to engineering healthy disk-like structures to implant in humans. In animal trials the disks become stable and well-integrated into the native tissue of the spinal columns several weeks post-surgery.
Antibiotic and Probiotic Combo Successfully Eradicate Resistant BacteriaResearchers have devised a new way to combat antibiotic resistance by combining a probiotic with an antibiotic. Encapsulating the probiotic in a biofilm-inspired shell of alginate prevented the antibiotic from killing it. The combination successfully eradicated two strains of drug-resistant bacteria known to infect wounds.
Does Herpes Cause Alzheimer’s?A new study looks at the possible causal link between the herpes virus and Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers report antiviral drugs significantly reduce the risk of developing dementia in patients with severe herpes infections
Whey Protein Best for Helping Seniors Rebuild Lost MuscleWhile exercise buffs have long used protein supplements to gain muscle, new research suggests one protein source in particular, whey protein, is most effective for seniors struggling to rebuild muscle lost from inactivity associated with illness or long hospital stays.
New 3-D Process Can Print Human Ligaments and TendonsScientists have developed a method to 3-D print cells to produce human tissue such as ligaments and tendons. A person with a badly damaged ligament, tendon, or ruptured disc could simply have new replacement tissue printed and ultimately implanted in the damaged area.
Nasal Administration of Resveratrol Shows Promise in Lung CancerLung cancer is the deadliest form of cancer in the world. Resveratrol exhibits chemopreventive properties against cancers of the digestive tract, no shows no effect on lung cancers. Scientists demonstrate that nasal administration of resveratrol shows very promising results in a study conducted in mice.
Human Gut Study Questions Health Benefits of ProbioticsNew research suggests that probiotics might not be as effective as we think. Through a series of experiments looking inside the human gut, researchers show that many people's digestive tracts prevent standard probiotics from successfully colonizing them.
Skin Cancer Linked to Widely-Used Drug AzathioprineThe widely used drug azathioprine, used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, vasculitis and organ rejection, is identified as an important contributor to skin cancer development, especially cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC).
ACE Inhibitors Prevent Memory Loss in Lupus Patients, Study SuggestsActivation of brain cells called microglia contributes to the memory loss and cognitive impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ACE inhibitors – drugs used to treat hypertension – block this process in mice and might help preserve memory in lupus patients.
Hormone Therapy Can Make Prostate Cancer Worse, Study FindsScientists have discovered how prostate cancer can sometimes withstand and outwit a standard hormone therapy, causing the cancer to spread. The findings may lead to a simple blood test to predict when hormone therapy resistance will occur.
Secret Tunnels Discovered Between Skull and BrainAccording to a new study of mice and humans, tiny tunnels run from bone marrow in the skull into the lining of the brain and may provide a direct route for immune cells responding to injuries caused by stroke and other brain disorders.
New Blood Test for Autism is Highly AccurateOne year after researchers published their work on a physiological test for autism, a follow-up study confirms its exceptional success, with an 88 percent accuracy rate in correctly predicting if a child is on the autism spectrum.
Daily Fasting on 16:8 Diet Aids Weight LossDaily fasting is an effective tool to reduce weight and lower blood pressure, according to a new study that examines the effect of time-restricted eating on weight loss in obese individuals.
Allergen in Red Meat Linked to Heart DiseaseA team of researchers says it has linked sensitivity to an allergen in red meat to the buildup of plaque in the arteries of the heart. While high saturated fat levels in red meat have long been known to contribute to heart disease for people in general, the new finding suggests that a subgroup of the population may be at heightened risk for a different reason – a food allergen.
Do B Vitamins Increase the Risk of Getting Cancer?New study reveals a strong correlation between increased risk of lung cancer and long-term B6/B12 supplementation, especially in high doses and among smokers. There are several ways B vitamins may interact with cancer metabolism; more research is needed to determine the exact mechanisms at work.
Fully Reprogrammed Virus Offers New Hope as Cancer TreatmentResearchers have successfully 'trained' a respiratory virus to recognize ovarian cancer and completely destroy it without infecting other cells. The reprogrammed virus could also be used to treat other cancers such as breast, pancreatic, lung and oral.
Vitamin B6 Helps People Recall DreamsNew research from the University of Adelaide has found that taking high-dose vitamin B6 supplements before going to bed for five consecutive days could help people recall their dreams.
An inexpensive cocktail of IV vitamin C, B1 (thiamine) and steroids is saving lives from sepsis, an out of control inflammatory response that kills more than 700 Americans every day.
Gut Bacteria Linked to Arthritis, Knee PainBacteria in the gut, known as the gut microbiome, could be the culprit behind arthritis and joint pain that plagues people who are obese, according to a new study published today in JCI Insight.